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The International Style was an architectural and design movement that emerged in the 1920s and 1930s, and it is characterized by a focus on simplicity, functionality, and clean lines. This style emerged as a response to the ornate and decorative styles that were popular at the time, such as Art Deco and Art Nouveau.

One of the key features of International Style architecture is the use of glass and steel as the main materials. This allows for the creation of buildings that are transparent and open, and it allows for the free flow of natural light. The use of these materials also allows for the creation of structures that are lightweight and can be easily adapted to different climates and locations.

In addition to the use of glass and steel, International Style architecture also emphasizes horizontal lines and the use of flat roofs. This creates a sense of openness and expansiveness, and it helps to create a connection between the building and its surroundings.

One of the key architects associated with the international style is Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who is known for his use of simple and elegant forms. His buildings, such as the Seagram Building in New York City and the Barcelona Pavilion in Spain, are considered to be some of the best examples of International Style architecture.

Overall, the International Style is characterized by a focus on simplicity, functionality, and the use of modern materials. This style has had a significant influence on the design of buildings around the world, and it continues to be a popular choice for architects and designers today.

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Victorian architectural design refers to the style of architecture that was popular during the reign of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, from 1837 to 1901. This style is characterized by its ornate and elaborate decoration, as well as its use of new materials and technologies of the time, such as iron and glass.

One of the key features of Victorian architecture is the use of highly decorative elements, such as intricate carvings, scrollwork, and moldings. These decorative elements were often used to highlight the Victorian obsession with wealth and status, and were meant to convey a sense of opulence and grandeur.

Another characteristic of Victorian architecture is the use of a variety of different materials, including brick, stone, and wood. These materials were often used in combination, with each one serving a specific function or contributing to the overall aesthetic of the building. For example, brick was often used for the structural elements of the building, while stone was used for decorative details and wood was used for trim and ornamentation.

Victorian architecture also made use of new technologies and materials, such as iron and glass. Iron was used to create decorative elements, as well as to support the structure of the building. Glass was used extensively in Victorian architecture, with large windows and stained glass being popular features.

Overall, Victorian architectural design is defined by its elaborate decoration, use of a variety of materials, and incorporation of new technologies. It remains a popular and enduring style, with many examples of Victorian architecture still standing today.

Gothic Revival architecture and design is a movement that emerged in the late 18th century and continued throughout the 19th century. It was a reaction against the ornate, classical styles that had dominated architecture and design in the preceding centuries. Instead, Gothic Revival embraced the forms and motifs of medieval architecture, particularly the Gothic style that was popular in the 12th to 15th centuries.

Gothic Revival architecture is characterized by its pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and flying buttresses, which were used to support the weight of the building and allow for larger windows. It also featured decorative elements such as quatrefoils, trefoils, and other geometric patterns. Gothic Revival buildings were often designed in a linear, symmetrical style, with a central entrance flanked by two towers or wings.

Gothic Revival design was not limited to architecture. It also influenced furniture, textiles, and other decorative arts. Furniture in the Gothic Revival style was typically made of dark wood and featured carved motifs such as fleurs-de-lis and quatrefoils. Textiles, such as wallpaper and fabrics, often featured Gothic patterns and motifs, as well as bright colors and intricate patterns.

Gothic Revival architecture and design was popular in many parts of Europe, particularly in the United Kingdom, and was also influential in the United States. It was often used for churches, government buildings, and educational institutions. However, it was also used for private homes and other types of buildings.

Gothic Revival was not just a stylistic movement, but also a cultural and intellectual one. It was seen as a way to reconnect with the past and with a sense of tradition and history. It was also seen as a way to express national identity and pride, particularly in countries that had a strong medieval history.

Overall, Gothic Revival architecture and design was a significant movement that shaped the built environment and decorative arts of the 19th century. It is still influential today, with many modern buildings and design elements drawing inspiration from the Gothic style.

Postmodern architecture and design emerged in the late 20th century as a reaction against the modernist architectural movement that had dominated the previous decades. Modernism, with its focus on functionality, simplicity, and a lack of ornamentation, was seen as lacking in personality and character. Postmodern architecture and design, on the other hand, embraced a more diverse and expressive style, incorporating elements from various historical periods and cultural influences.

One of the key characteristics of postmodern architecture is its use of pastiche, or the blending of different architectural styles. This can include the incorporation of classical elements such as columns, arches, and decorative details, as well as the use of unconventional materials and shapes. Postmodern architects often rejected the idea of a single “correct” architectural style, instead embracing the idea that buildings could be expressive and personal.

Another defining feature of postmodern design is its use of irony and humor. This can be seen in the use of playful, exaggerated forms, as well as the incorporation of kitschy or Pop Art-inspired elements. This sense of playfulness was meant to challenge the seriousness of modernist architecture and to create a sense of fun and whimsy.

Postmodern architecture and design also focused on the idea of context, or the way that a building or object fits into its surroundings. This can be seen in the use of materials and colors that blend with the surrounding environment, as well as the incorporation of local cultural elements.

Postmodern architecture and design rejected the rigid, functionalist approach of modernism in favor of a more expressive, diverse, and playful style. It embraced the idea that buildings and objects could be expressive and personal, and that they could be created in a way that fit seamlessly into their surroundings.

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